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The meaning of analogy is 'similar properties' or similarity. If an object or word or digit or activity shows any similarity with another object or word or digit or activity in terms of properties, type, shape, size, trait etc., then the particular similarity will be called analogy.
In these types of questions a series of numbers or alphabetical letters or combinations of both are given. The candidate is required to study the pattern and either to complete the given series with the suitable term or to find the wrong term in the series.
Types of Analogy Relationships:
Type I: Completing the Analogous Pair
In these types of questions, three words are given and two words are related to each other in some way. The candidate is required to find out the relationship between the third and fourth word on the basis of the relationship of the first two words.
Example: Bulky : Fat :: Happiness : ?
(a) Bad (b) Ugly (c) Joy (d) Sorrow
Answer: (c) is the correct option because 'Bulky' is the synonym of 'Fat' and similarly 'Happiness' is the synonym of 'joy'.
Type II: Selecting the Analogies Pair
In this type of analogy one pair is given to you and one has to study the relationship between the two words and has to choose a pair from the given options sharing the same relationship.
Example: Sonnet: Poem
(a) Chapter:Book (b) Lie:Falsehood
(c) Murder:Crime (d) Ballad:Stanza
Answer: (c) Clearly Sonnet is a part of Poem, similarly murder is one of the type of Crime.
Type III: Double Analogy
In the following example, two words indicated by I and II have been left out. The correct word to come in place of I is given as one of the four options (1), (2), (3) and (4) against I and the correct word to come in place of II is given as one of the four alternatives (A), (B), (C) and (D) against II. There is some relationship between the two words to the left of sign (::) and the same relationship obtains between the two words to the right of the sign (::). The correct combination is given as one of the four options (a), (b), (c) and (d). Find the correct combination.
Example: I: Breeze :: Cyclone :II
I. (1) Drizzle (2) Fire (3) River (4) Forest
II. (A) Earthquake (B) Storm (C) Flood
(a) 1A (b) 1D (c) 2D (d) 3C
Answer: (b) Clearly, as the hyper form of Breeze is Cyclone, similarly, hyper form of Drizzle is Downpour.
Type IV: Selecting a similar word
In this type of questions, a group of three/four inter related words is given. Candidate is required to select a word from the given alternatives that is similar to the given words and hence belongs to the same group.
Example: Lucknow: Hyderabad: Ranchi
(a) Jaipur (b) Nagpur (c) Hissar (d) Mysore
Answer: (a) clearly, all the cities in question here are capital cities of different states.
Type V: Analogy based on Numbers
In this type of analogy, relationship between two numbers is studied and similar relationship is sought from the given options.
Example1: 26:5:: 65:?
Answer: (b) Clearly the relationship is (x2 + 1) : x.
Example 2: Given set: (81, 77,69)
(a) (56, 52, 44)
(b) (64, 61, 53)
(d) (92, 88, 79)
Answer: (a) Here 1st number – 4 = 2nd Number
2nd Number – 8 = 3rd Number.
Type VI: Analogy based on Alphabet:
In these type of Questions a candidate is required to find out the relationship between two given groups of letters related to each other in some way and then choose either a letter group or pair consisting of similarly related letter groups.
Example: MUMBAI : LTLAZH :: DELHI : ?
(a) CDKGJ (b) IHLED (c) CDKGH (d) BCKGH
Answer: (c) Here each letter of first group is replaced by an Alphabet just before in the alphabet series, like L replaces M and T replaces U.